Section 9.  Each person has the right to a clean and healthful environment, as defined by laws relating to environmental quality, including control of pollution and conservation, protection and enhancement of natural resources. Any person may enforce this right against any party, public or private, through appropriate legal proceedings, subject to reasonable limitations and regulation as provided by law. [Add Const Con 1978 and election Nov 7, 1978]

Law Journals and Reviews

  Enforcement of Environmental Laws in Hawai`i.  16 UH L. Rev. 85.

  A Suggested Framework for Judicial Review of Challenges to the Adequacy of an Environmental Impact Statement Prepared under the Hawaii Environmental Policy Act.  18 UH L. Rev. 719.

  Hawai`i Constitution, Article XI, Section 1:  The Conservation, Protection, and Use of Natural Resources.  19 UH L. Rev. 177.

Case Notes

  Section does not enlarge subject matter jurisdiction of federal courts.  714 F.2d 77.